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Critics have long accused President Joseph Kabila of postponing the vote to maintain his grip on power.
How researchers define terms and pose survey questions matters.
These surveys are conducted within a safety or crime context and clearly find more partner abuse by men against women.
For example, NVAWS found that women are significantly more likely than men to report being victims of intimate partner violence whether it is rape, physical assault, or stalking and whether the timeframe is the person's lifetime or the previous 12 months.
The opposition accuses Kabila of controlling the electoral commission and courts in a bid to remain in power.
The NCVS sample, in contrast, interviews all members of a household who are 12 and older and reinterviews them every 6 months over a 3-year period, making privacy more difficult to maintain.
 There is a new national survey under development.
Researchers continue to be hampered by insufficient data concerning the incidence and prevalence of intimate partner and sexual violence, both nationally and locally.
() According to the Constitution President Kabila cannot stand for re-election when his term ends in December. And the chances for a change at the top are not good.
() Congo's electoral commission has said a long-awaited presidential vote will take place in late December 2018.
Measuring intimate partner violence — often called "domestic violence" — can produce different results depending on the instruments used, the focus of the survey (crime, safety, health) and the severity of injuries.